A comparison in international laws with regard to IrBM

A COMPARISON OF INTERNATIONAL LAWS

Country Pre-nuptial agreements valid? Both Spouse’s property impacted? Pre-Marital Property
Divided?
Post Marital Property
Divided?
Inherited/ Inheritable Property
Divided?
Duration of Marriage Considered? Division of Property.
United
States of
America
Yes Yes No Yes No Yes · Total 9 states out of 50 States follows community property law, means 50-50 division of post marital property only.

· Rest 41 States divide property on the basis of Marital

· property law where

· Financial contribution considered

· Not equal

· Depends on many factors

United Kingdom No Yes Rarely Yes Rarely Yes · Financial contribution considered

· Not equal

· Depends on many factors

Chile Yes Yes No Yes Rarely Yes · Financial contribution considered

· Not equal

· Depends on many factors

Singapore Yes Yes Rarely Yes No Yes · Financial contribution considered

· Not equal

· Depends on many factors

Indonesia Yes Yes No Yes No No · 50-50 Post Marital Property in absence of Prenuptial,

· DEBTS are also Joint responsibility.

Goa
(Portuguese Civil law – 1910)
Yes Yes No Yes No No · 50-50 Post Marital Property in absence of Prenuptial.
China (latest amendment of Marriage Law – 2011) Yes N / A N / A N / A N / A N / A · No Property Division, owner is one who paid for it.
Proposed Marriage Amendment Bill -2010 NO NO, Only Husband YES YES, Only Husband YES, Only Husband Side NO · Anonymous
Our Recommendations Yes Yes No Rarely No Yes · No Property Division, Owner is one who paid for it.

· only in case of Handicaps and break in employment is more than 4 years prior to divorce and Marriage duration is more than 7 Years

Advertisements

Second letter to @PMOIndia and his ministers to #StopMarriageBill

28/11/2014

To,

Hon’ble Minister of Law and Justice,

Shastri Bhawan, A-Wing,

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road,

New Delhi – 110001

SUB: SERIOUS OBJECTIONS TO INTRODUCTION OF MARRIAGE LAW (AMENDMENT) BILL 2014.

 Dear Sir,

            With this letter, we hereby want to register very serious and strong objection to the process followed for the introduction of Marriage Law (Amendment) Bill.

            With this Letter, we also wish to bring to your kind notice the CLEAR VIOLATION that Legislative Department has done while processing the new Draft. As per Pre-Legislative Consultation Policy (PLCP), decided on 10th January 2014, it was decided, that

“The Department/Ministry concerned should publish/place in public domain the draft legislation or at least the information that may inter alia include brief justification for such legislation, essential elements of the proposed legislation, its broad financial implications, and an estimated assessment of the impact of such legislation on environment, fundamental rights, lives and livelihoods of the concerned/affected people, etc. Such details may be kept in the public domain for a minimum period of thirty days for being proactively shared with the public in such manner as may be specified by the Department/Ministry concerned.”

 Unfortunately, the current draft clearly violates this very important procedure laid down by the Committee of Secretaries (CoS) under the Chairmanship of Cabinet Secretary.

             The draft which saw widespread Public concern/panic cannot be pushed again without having passed the Constitutional Procedures laid down in our Democracy. This is the same Draft bill of the previous government and it was being pushed by UPA for election gains. The Bill was opposed by various segments of society including RSS and BJP and had International criticism on India for proposing such a draconian law. In spite of all the above, it is really hearbreaking that the New Government, under a dynamic leadership of PM Modi whose mantra has been “SABKA SAATH SABKA VIKAS” has not taken the TRANSPARENT route and is behaving similar to the  Congress led UPA Government that people of India did NOT choose to  re-elect.

GRAVE AND FAR REACHING SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF THE PROPOSED MARRIAGE LAW (AMMENDMENT) BILL, 2014:

 

  1. LOSS OF FAMILY VALUES AND FALL OF INSTITUTION OF MARRIAGE IN INDIA
  • Marriage will lose its sanctimonious purpose and become property acquiring business. Already, there is an increasing trend towards material expectations in a marriage; the amendment will have a far reaching consequence. With divorce no more being a taboo in India, the incentive of women taking divorce would work as reverse DOWRY menace where women would marry for property and not for family or love.
  • China in 2010 amended a similar property annexing law when it found that it being misused extensively by women to grab property through marriages. With misuse of gender laws in India close to an all-time high, this is not the climate to introduce another dangerously draconian legislation. [1]

  1. SEVERE VIOLENCE AND SOCIAL UNREST IS HIGHLY PROBABALE
  • Assets/Properties are acquired after years of hard work and not because of few years of matrimonial life. Losing hard earned property in case of failed marriage will lead to increase in Husband Suicide (already it is double) and Increase in Crime Rates.
  • The Battle of Mahabharata was fought for five villages. With the proposed amendments the home of every Husband’s family is going to be in trouble. This Bill if passed in its current form may result in the very person sought to be benefitted/ protected becoming a victim of violence for protecting property as there is hardly any faith in timeliness and gender neutrality of our legal system. Will the Government/BJP be willing to take full responsibility for this dangerous social disruption?

 

  1. INDIAN ECONOMY WOULD BE ADVERSELY IMPACTED & INDIA WILL NOT BE PERCEIVED AS A SAFE DESTINATION FOR FDI
  • No country would like to “Make in India” when our society is at unrest and violent.
  • Indian families would lose confidence in investing in real estate.
  • Savings would be done in movable properties like Gold etc and balck money culture would thrive.
  • Indians would start investing in foreign real estate as those would be safer countries for it.

  1. MASS CONVERSION FROM HINDU TO OTHER RELIGIONS
  • Hindu men would want to convert to another religion to minimize their risks in matrimonial life. This mass conversion has its own extremely dire social and political complications.
  • Hindu Men would stop marrying or do SAGOTRA VIVAH to keep the property in the family. This may itself create many honor killings and people taking law in their hands.

 

  1. INCREASE IN BACKLOG OF MATRIMONIAL CASES IN INDIAN COURTS
  • To save ones property families would fight endlessly increasing the backlog of the already overloaded courts. Apex court confirms that in failed marriages women are grossly misusing IPC 498a and DV Act for extortion. This amendment will be another tool for extortion and further distress families and Honourable courts in India.
  • India is a young country, 60% population falls under 35. Most of the relationship/marriage/family troubles occur in this age group. If this age group is not in a stable family and relationship state the productivity of INDIA would go down drastically when most are deeply immersed in litigation battles.

FLAWS OF THE PROPOSED MARRIAGE LAW AMENDMENT BILL 2014:

  1. The Bill, out-rightly violates the essence of Article 15 of Indian Constitution which prohibits discrimination against any citizen on the grounds of religion or gender. The Bill is also unconstitutional as it takes away the basic rights of husbands, even to defend him or save his marriage, whereas the very same Bill gives the same rights only to the wives.
  2. In present bill the contribution, duration, assets and ability of female spouse and liabilities and ability of the male spouse is completely ignored.
  • With latest Hindu Succession Act women is entitled to her share from her own property as a man is. There is no rational in why she should inherit from her in-laws too? What would happen to senior citizens if their son’s marriage is on rocks?
  1. The bill essentially extends the “Financial Assistance” clause only to the wife, Cant a husband be poor and helpless as other sections of this act acknowledge.
  2. The bill allows wife to use ‘Financial Hardship’ as an objection to block the divorce till her monetary demands are met, thereby legalizing extortion.
  3. With this amendment, instead of letting the couple to arrive at a mutual consent it would only pressurize men to “pay and buy” a divorce, reducing the institution of marriage into “Glorified Prostitution” wives would misuse it for wrongful gains.
  • While 70% of Indians need Food Security Bill, this amendment as a way to protect destitution of women is a logically flawed and essentially an eye wash.

OVERHAUL OF THE FAMILY LAWS IN INDIA IS NEEDED INSTEAD:

  1. Hindu Marriage Act is conceived as an overall a gender neutral act and it must not me made gender biased in anyway.
  2. The maintenance and alimony sections (HMA 24 and 25) must be brought up-to-date considering the enhanced education, earning capacity and women friendly work atmosphere in the country.
  3. As women inherit the property from her own parents under the present laws, women being given any direct or indirect share in in-laws property is illogical and against natural justice.
  4. Consideration of any property while determining Alimony should be as per the financial contribution by husband and wife.
  5. In case of non-financial contribution, devise a formula to evaluate minimum duration of marriage for applicability of property division as well as devise a formula to evaluate the contribution.
  6. Pre-Nuptial Agreements should be made legal so as not to make marriage a gamble for Indian citizen and containing the risk of (breakage of) a marriage.

ALTERNATES FOR ENSURING FINANCIAL ASSITANCE & EMPOWERMENT FOR DIVORCED SPOUSE:

Marriage is an institution which if it does not work should not be a punishment for one party (husband) and a reward for another (wife). To empower women in true form, work opportunity should be provided by the state for a woman who faces grave financial hardships; adequate measures should be devised to address it, instead of penalizing husband alone. We recommend the following measures to be strictly implemented:

  • Hindu Marriage Succession Act of 2005 should be strictly implemented. The woman’s share in her parent’s property should be Suo Moto given to her either at the time of marriage or at the time of Divorce is filed in the court (by either party) if the party wishes.
  • In cases of unemployed women or women with long career break, State should take the responsibility of providing employment and livelihood to divorced wife, Employment for Divorced wife in line of Mahatma Gandhi NREGA must be institutionalized. A Divorced Wife Welfare Fund may also be created for financial support to them in line of the Food Security Bill.

OUR OBJECTIONS AND DEMANDS:

  1. By attempting to create draconian marriage breaking laws like Marriage Law (Amendment) Bill on one hand and to legalize prostitution on another, the government has made its intentions very clear on what it wants to do with the sacred Hindu Family. This bill needs to be immediately stopped and public opinion must be sought through an extensive public debate.
  2. Issue the Draft for Public Opinion and responses on the Draft Bill and Involve stake holders of similar stature in drafting procedure and Initiate the process of formation of National Commission of Men involving bodies who have been working for Men for years to bring the equitable balance back into the society in terms of Laws and Law Making process.
  3. Clause of exclusive litigation is a must and all other maintenance cases filed by the wife, like Sec 24, CrPC 125, DV etc., should not be allowed to continue, blocking the judicial dockets, as the relief sought in all of them, will also be available in this Bill only.
  4. Include condition of finishing/quashing all litigation before divorce is granted so that both parties can live peacefully and that judicial burden can be reduced.

 

PRAYER:

Hon’ble Sir,

            The new government has enthused the nation by giving it a vision, courage to dream big and to have faith in its ability to achieve the same but all this would necessarily require a healthy society where the mind is fearless.

            We earnestly seek your immediate intervention since such half-baked hastily prepared formulations, sans due consultation, & based on unfounded prejudices, have the potential to grievously imperil the social fabric of the society. This is apart from the stupendous economic impact caused by the matrimonial disputes and their offshoots including criminal cases. It is well acknowledged that Indian laws, i.e., the legal framework has not kept pace with the times, is badly outdated and is designed more to benefit the legal fraternity than the litigating parties, howsoever pitiable and needy they may be. Strife and discord can only harm a society’s march towards improved quality of life.

Thanking You,

Anupam Dubey,

Chairman,

+91 98891 88810

[1]http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/8714097/China-tries-to-stop-women-marrying-for-money-rather-than-love.html

Letter to Hon’ble Prime Minister to protest against IrBM

दिनांक: 24/11/2014

 सेवा में,

          श्रीमान प्रधानमंत्री महोदय,

          152, साउथ ब्लाक,

          रायसीना हिल,

          नई दिल्ली – 110011

विषय: विवाह (संशोधन) विधेयक के विरुद्ध आपत्तियां

श्रीमान जी,

दामन वेलफेयर सोसाइटी, 40 से ज़्यादा गैर-सरकारी संगठनो द्वारा चलाए जा रहे “सेव इंडियन फैमिली मूवमेन्ट” का हिस्सा है। यह आंदोलन, 2005 से निरंतर, एक संतुलित समाज और परिवारों में सद्भाव बनाए रखने की दिशा में कार्यरत है। पिछले 10 सालों में करोड़ों परिवारों की मदद की है और कई परिवारों को टूटने से बचाया है।

समाचार रिपोर्टों एवं हमारे द्वारा कानून मंत्रालय के विधायी विभाग में फोन पर हुई बातचीत से यह संज्ञान में आया कि भारत सरकार इसी शीतकालीन सत्र में एक नया कानून, विवाह (संशोधन) विधेयक पेश करने जा रही है और इस विधेयक के मसौदे के माध्यम से हिन्दू विवाह अधिनियम, 1955 एवं विशेष विवाह अधिनियम में संशोधन करना चाहती है।

इस पत्र के माध्यम से हम विवाह (संशोधन) विधेयक के लिये अपनाई गयी प्रक्रिया के विरुद्ध कड़ी आपत्ति दर्ज कराना चहते हैं।

हम आपके संज्ञान में यह लाना चाहते हैं कि:

1)          यह वही कानूनी मसौदा है जो पिछली सरकार के कार्यकाल में भी सूर्य के प्रकाश से वंचित रहा था क्योकि तब भाजपा को बिलकुल सही एहसास हो गया था कि यह कानून हिंदू परिवारों एवं हिंदू पुरुषों के लिये कितना विनाशकारी है।

2)          यह वही कानूनी मसौदा है जिसे समाज के विभिन्न वर्गों में नकार दिया गया था और जिसकी वजह से, गलत कारणों से ध्यान आकर्षित होने के कारण भारत की क्षमताओं के प्रति व्यापक अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संदेह का माहौल बना था।

3)          अंतर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर, इसी तरह के कानूनो में संपत्ति विभाजन विशुद्ध रूप से संपत्ति में व्यक्ति के वित्तीय योगदान, विवाह की अवधि और दोनों पक्षों के आचरण के आधार पर ही आधारित होता है। यूपीए सरकार ने कुछ पुरुष-विरोधी संगठनों के दबाव में आकर, जल्दबाजी में एक गलत विधेयक का प्रस्ताव रखा, जिसके उपरान्त भाजपा ही हिंदू पुरुषों के बचाव के लिए आयी थी।

4)          भाजपा को इस विधेयक से अर्थव्यवस्था और परिवार प्रणाली के प्रति खतरों का एहसास हुआ:

1)          हिन्दू पुरुष संपत्ति खरीदना बंद कर देंगे और इससे अर्थव्यवस्था को आघात होगा।

2)          हिन्दू पुरुष शादी करना बंद कर देंगे जिससे हिन्दू जनसंख्या में गिरावट आयेगी।

3)          हिन्दू पुरुष मजबूरन या तो अपनी बहनों से शादी करेंगे या धर्म परिवर्तन करेंगे।

4)          पतियों की आत्महत्या की दर जो कि भारत में सर्वाधिक है, और बढ़ेगी।

5)          पूर्व एवं वर्तमान विधेयक, संवैधानिक रूप से गलत हैं क्योकि उनका मसौदा माननीय उच्चतम न्यायालय के दिशा निर्देशों के बिलकुल अलग है। माननीय उच्चतम न्यायालय ने शादी के असाध्य रुप से टूटने की स्थिति में विवाह विच्छेदन हेतु कानून बनाने के लिये दिशा निर्देश दिये थे ना कि संपत्ति विभाजन के लिये।

6)          पूर्व एवं वर्तमान विधेयक, संवैधानिक रूप से गलत हैं क्योकि यह केवल महिला कल्याण मंत्रालय और राष्ट्रीय महिला आयोग के सुझावों के अनुसार है और पुरुषों की पूर्ण रूप से उपेक्षा करता है, जबकि पुरुष भी विवाह कानूनों में किसी भी परिवर्तन से समान रूप से प्रभावित होते है।

7)          पूर्व एवं वर्तमान विधेयक, संवैधानिक रूप से गलत हैं क्योकि यह लिंग-भेद रहित हिन्दू विवाह अधिनियम को पुरुष विरोधी भी बनाता है।

यह चौंकाने वाली बात है कि ऊपर वर्णित वास्तविकताओं के बावजूद, एक प्रभावशाली नेतृत्व में एक दूरदर्शी सरकार ने भी इस विधेयक के लिये पूर्व सरकार द्वारा अपनाया गया मार्ग ही चुन लिया।

इस पत्र के माध्यम से, विधायी विभाग के वर्त्मान मसौदा तैयार करने में, किये हुए स्पष्ट उल्लंघन भी हम आपके संज्ञान में लाना चाहते हैं। 10 जनवरी 2014 को निर्धारित Pre-Legislative Consultation Policy (PLCP) के अनुसार यह निर्णीत हुआ था कि:

 “The Department/Ministry concerned should publish/place in public domain the draft legislation or at least the information that may inter alia include brief justification for such legislation, essential elements of the proposed legislation, its broad financial implications, and an estimated assessment of the impact of such legislation on environment, fundamental rights, lives and livelihoods of the concerned/affected people, etc. Such details may be kept in the public domain for a minimum period of thirty days for being proactively shared with the public in such manner as may be specified by the Department/Ministry concerned.”

हम आपका ध्यान एक अधिसूचना, D.O. No. 11(35)/2013-L.I., तारीखी 5 फ़रवरी 2014 की ओर आकर्षित करना चाहते है, जो कि यह सुनिश्चित करता है कि मंत्रालय, विधेयक के मसौदे को पब्लिक डोमेन में कम से कम 30 दिनों के लिये प्रकाशित करें और प्रभावित लोगों को सूचित करें। दुर्भाग्यवश, वर्तमान मसौदा स्पष्ट रूप से कैबिनेट सचिव की अध्यक्षता में सचिवों की समिति (CoS) द्वारा निर्धारित इस बहुत ही महत्वपूर्ण प्रावधान/प्रक्रिया का उल्लंघन करता है।

हम यहाँ यह भी निवेदन करना चाहते हैं कि कोई प्रक्रिया अपनाने के बाद यदि विधेयक निरस्त होता है तो वही प्रक्रिया किसी भी समान मसौदे वाले कानून के लिये लागू नहीं कर सकते और इसीलिए एक मसौदा जिससे बड़े पैमाने पर सार्वजनिक चिंताओं/आशंकाओं का जन्म होता हो, उसे लोकतंत्र में निर्धारित संवैधानिक प्रक्रियाओं को तिलांजली देकर आगे नहीं बढ़ाया जा सकता।

इस पत्र के माध्यम से हम आपसे निवेदन करते हैं कि:

1)          विवाह (संशोधन) विधेयक की प्रक्रिया को तत्काल रोकें, क्योंकि यह भारतीय लोकतंत्र में नागरिकों के मौलिक अधिकारों का उल्लंघन करता है।

2)          विधेयक के मसौदे पर जनता की राय और प्रतिक्रिया के लिये एक ड्राफ्ट मसौदा प्रकाशित करें।

3)          मसौदा तैयार करने की प्रक्रिया में हर पक्ष की हिस्सेदारी होनी चाहिये, अर्थात, अगर पुरुषों की ओर से कोई राष्ट्रीय पुरुष आयोग नहीं है तो महिलाओं की ओर से भी महिला कल्याण मंत्रालय या राष्ट्रीय महिला आयोग को भी भाग लेने की अनुमति नहीं होनी चाहिये।

4)          पुरुषों के लिये काम करने वाले संगठनो को साथ लेकर ’राष्ट्रीय पुरुष आयोग’ के गठन की प्रक्रिया आरम्भ करें, ताकि कानूनों और कानून बनाने की प्रक्रिया के संदर्भ में, समाज में न्यायसंगत संतुलन वापस आ सके।

5)          एक संसदीय समिति का गठन कर मसौदे पर पुनर्विचार करें और देखें कि क्या ऐसे किसी कानून की आवश्यकता है भी, क्या ये माननीय उच्चतम न्यायालय के दिशा निर्देशों के अनुसार है या केवल कुछ इच्छुक पुरुष-विरोधी पार्टियों के दबाव में ही बनाया जा रहा है।

आपके द्वारा मदद व समर्थन, तथा हमारी प्रार्थना अनुसार तत्काल कार्यवाही की अपेक्षा में…

आपका शुभाकांक्षी

अनुपम दुबे

(अध्यक्ष)

anupamdubey@hotmail.com

+91 98891 88810